谢孟媛.初级文法的教学视频的学习笔记,本篇文章中包含一般进行时、一般过去时、现在进行时、过去进行时、一般将来时的基础内容。如感兴趣可根据如下地址下载观看。

链接: https://pan.baidu.com/s/1eZLfSYTtklpQi89yGou4gg 提取码: 79rq

一般现在时

动词形式:

  • be动词: am/is/are

  • 一般动词:主语为第三人称单数时,动词加s。

时间副词: now, every + 时间

表示现在的状态或动作

  • There are many visits in the zool.
  • Here comes the bus.

表示现在习惯性动作

  • David often sleeps during class.

  • My parents take exercise(锻炼,不可加s) in the park every morning.

math exercises(习题,可加s) play sports(具体的运动,文中会支持具体的什么运动)

表示不变的事实或真理

  • The earth moves around the sun.

一般过去时

动词形式:

  • be动词:was/were
  • 一般动词:过去时动词(不分人称, 一般情况是加ed)

时间副词:

  • yesterday(morning/afternoon/evening)

  • the day after yesterday 前天

  • last + 时间:上~, 如:last week, last night(昨天晚上, 等同于yesterday evening), last year

  • 时间 + ago(~之前)

two hours age / five days age

before(以前). then (=> at that time)

表示过去的动作或状态

  • I bought(buy过去时) this yesterday.
  • There was an old temple(寺庙,太阳穴) over here.曾经这里有座老的寺庙(隐含意思现在没有了)

表示过去习惯性动作

  • My father used to smoke, but now he doesn’t. 我爸以前经常抽烟,现在不了。

used to + 动词原型:过去习惯干什么

现在进行时

动词形式:be动词(am / are / is ) + Ving

  • 动词原型 + ing (大部分动词)

talk - talking(聊天,经常使用talk to 和谁聊天) / say - saying(说一句话) / speak - speaking(说的语言)

  • 原型动词字尾有e, 去e加ing

have - having / write - writing / come - coming

  • 原型动词为辅音+短元音+辅音, 重复字尾+ing

put - putting / cut - cutting / swim - swimming

表示现在正在进行的

  • We are eating breakfast now.

break 打破 fast 快速、斋戒 breakfast:起床后第一餐(打破斋戒)

比较: We ate(eat过去时) breakfast before going to school.

​ We eat breakfast every morning.

  • John is watching the baseball game on TV now.

表示重复性的动作,常伴always, all the time, again and again等

  • He is always compaining(抱怨).

compain about + 受词: 抱怨某人某物

  • The car is breaking down all the time.

表示最近的未来即将发生的动作。此法常用于某些动作,如:come, go, start, leave, arrive往来动词等

  • I’m leaving for kenting tomorrw. 明天我即将前往垦丁。

leave 离开 leave for 前往

  • My boyfriend is coming to see me this afternoon.

注意 某些动词不用于进行时钟

  • 表“感观”的动词, see(看的见), hear(听得到), small(闻得到)等
  • 表“情感”的动词, love, like等
  • 其它, have, know等

I’m looking at the bird in the tree. 不可用seeing

过去进行时

动词形式: was/were + Ving

表示过去某一时间正在进行的动作

  • He was playing frissbee in th park then. (那时他在公园玩飞盘)

  • We were plaing chess at eight yesterday evening. (昨天八点我们再下棋)

比较: We played chess yesterday evening. 过去式(昨天我们下过棋)

  • Lily was taking a bath when the doorbell rang.(门铃响的时候莉莉正在洗澡)

take a bath: 盆浴 take a shower: 淋浴

take a shower: 淋浴

表示过去某一时间期限中反复性的动作

  • Whenever I visited him, he was watching TV.(无论我什么时候拜访他,他都在看电视)

whenever: 无论什么时候 whoever: 无论是谁 whereever: 无论在哪

  • In those days, we was getting up at six o’clock.(在那些天,我们都是六点起床)

those: that的复数形式

一般将来时

用于表示未来发生的动作或状态

be going to + 原型动词

表示实现性非常高的事或事先计划好的未来, 与will存在区别,be going to 它的实施性更强。

时间副词:

tomorrow(morning, afternoon, evening)

the day after tomorrow(后天)

next + 时间: 下~, 如:next week, next year

in + 时间: 在~当中, 如:in a few days(在几天之后/内), in a week(在一个星期后/内)

  • I’m going to visit my uncle tomorrow. (明天我打算去看望我的叔叔。)

  • I have to buy the ladder because I’m going to paint the house white. (我打算买个梯子,因为我要粉刷房子)

paint: 画画(限拿着刷子画画的情况,像素描等种类需要用draw)、粉刷房子

paint xxx color: paint the house white

  • I don’t feel good; I’m afraid(形容词) I’m going to be sick. (我感觉不舒服;我恐怕我要生病了)

be afraid: 恐怕什么

  • Are they going to have(举办) a party on Christmas Eve?

will + 动词原形

  • We are going to leave junior high school.

We will leave junior high school.

We are leaving junior hight school.

上述三种都可以表示未来

  • I will be fifteen years old next year.

这里不能替换为be going to. 因为年龄不能进行计划。

  • A: I can’t move this large box.

B: I’ll do it for you.( != I’m going to do it for you. 因为事件是突发的,所以不能用be going to 进行替换)

  • I will not change my mind.

=> I’ll not/I won’t change my mind.

Will you ~ ? => 表示请求或邀约

表请求:Will you ~ ?

​ => Sure. / OK. / All right.

​ No, I can’t / I’m sorry. I can’t

  • Will you look after(照顾,可用take care of替换) the baby for me?

=> Sure. / I’m sorry, But(表事与愿违的意思) I can’t

表邀请: Will you ~ ?

​ => Yes, please.

​ Yes, thank you.

​ No, thank you

  • Will you have another cup of coffee?

=> Yes, please. / No, thank you.