名词(n.):

  • 普通名词
  • 集合名词

​ 表示一组事物 , 如:class, glass

  • 专有名词

1. 首字母大写

2. 前加the, 如:Peter, London, the United States

  • 物质名词

数字+量词+of+物质名词, 如: a armful of wood, a sheet of paper

  • 抽象名词(不可数名词)

​ 不可见或触摸的, 如:beauty, honesty, happiness

复数的规则变化:

  1. 字尾加s 如:dog - dogs, book - books
  2. 字尾为s, sh, ch, x, o 加es, 如:class - classes, bench - benches, box - boxes. 例外:photos, pianos,
  3. 字尾为辅音+y的话, 去y+ies, 如:city - cities, baby - babies
  4. 字尾为f或fe的话, 去f或fe + ves, 如:leaf - leaves, wife - wives, knife - knives. 例外: handkerchiefs, chiefs, roofs

复数的不规则变化:

  1. 字尾为en, ren 例:ox - oxen, child - children
  2. 改元音 man - men, woman - women, goose - geese, tooth - teeth, mouse mice

单复数同形: fish, deer, sheep, Chinese, Japanese

所有格:

  1. 单数名词:the boy’s schoolbag.
  2. 复数名词:名词s’, 如:a girls’ school(一所女子学校). a是修饰school的冠词。

  3. 字尾非s的复数名词:名词’s, 如:children’s playground

共同所有格:名词+名词+…+名词’s

harry and bill’s father is a scientist. 

个别所有格:名词’s+名词’s+…+名词’s

harry’s and bill's fathers are scientists. 
Mr and Mrs bround’s car. 

(无)生物所有格:A的B:B of A

the legs of the table(桌子的脚) 
the doors of a car.  
the girl’s name/the name of the girl.

所有格之后的名词,如在句子中非常容易理解时可以省略。如:she’s going to the dentist’s (office).最经典的是McDonald’s 麦当劳。 We like to eat lunch at McDonald’s (restaurant).

Notes:

  1. fish , one fish(一只鱼) , a kind of fish(一种鱼), two kinds of fishes(两种鱼)